A)  The continuation of politics with an admixture of other means. (Clausewitz, 1972; cited by Schmid 1998: http://www.fewer.org/pubs.thes.htm)

B)  A state of open, armed, often prolonged conflict carried on between nations, states, or parties. (Houghton Mifflin Company 1982: 1362)

C)  Collective, direct, manifest, personal, intentional, organized, instrumental, institutionalized, sanctioned, and sometimes ritualized and regulated violence. (v.d. Dennen, 1995; cited by Schmid 1998:http://www.fewer.org/pubs.thes.htm)

D) Violent conflict in which there are more than 1,000 battle-related deaths during a particular year. (Uppsala University Conflict Data Project, 2001: http://www.pcr.uu.se/data.html)