A)  A political entity that has legal jurisdiction and physical control over a defined territory and the authority to make collective decisions for a permanent population, a monopoly on the legitimate use of force, and an internationally recognized government that interacts, or has the capacity to interact, in formal relations with other entities. A state must perform minimum functions for the public to maintain social cohesion. (Baker & Weller 1998: 10)

B)  A specialized type of political organization characterized by a full-time, specialized, professional work force of tax-collectors, soldiers, policemen, bureaucrats and the like that exercises supreme political authority over a defined territory with a permanent population, independent from any enduring external political control and possessing a local predominance of coercive power (always supplemented with moral and remunerative incentives as well) great enough to maintain general obedience to its laws or commands within its territorial borders. It is only in relatively modern times that states have almost completely displaced alternative “stateless” forms of political organization of societies all over the planet.