Peace Enforcement

A)  The application of military force or threat of its use, normally pursuant to international authorization, to compel compliance with generally accepted resolutions or sanctions to maintain or restore peace and support diplomatic efforts to reach a long-term political settlement. The primary purpose of peace enforcement is the restoration of peace under conditions broadly defined by the international community (UNDHA 1995:

B)  The use or threat of armed force as provided for in Chapter VII of the United Nations Charter aimed at restoring peace by military means such as in Korea (1950-1953) or Iraq (1991). It can take place without the agreement and support of one or all of the warring parties. It can refer to both an inter-state or an intrastate conflict, to [serve] the mitigation of a humanitarian emergency or in situations where the organs of state have ceased to function. Peace enforcement actions include carrying out international sanctions against the opposing sides, or against the side that represents the driving force in the armed conflict; isolating the conflict and preventing arms deliveries to the area, as well as preventing its penetration by armed formations; delivering air or missile strikes on positions of the side that refuses to halt its military actions; and rapid deployment of peace forces to the combat zones in numbers sufficient to carry out the assigned missions, including the localizing of the conflict and the disarming or eradicating of any armed formations that refuse to cease fighting. (Demurenko & Nikitin, 1997; cited by Schmid 1998: